C L A U S E S 2


Modals adalah kata kerja bantu (auxulary verb) yang member tambahan arti pada kalimat.

Fungsi modals:

  1. A.      Ability à menyatakan kemampuan

Modals : can / could

Catatan : can/could = to be + able to (atau) to be + capable VING

  1. B.       Permission à menyatakan izin

Modals : – can / could    –  to be allowed to

–   May / might  –  to be permitted to

(makna aktif)      (makna pasif)

  1. C.       Possibility à menyatakan kemungkinan

Modals : – can / could

–   May / might

  1. D.      Obligation à menyatakan keharusan

Modals :  – must

–   Should

–   Ought to

Catatan : must = have/has/had + to = harus

  1. E.       Logical Conclusion à menyatakan kesimpulan logis dari suatu kejadian / pernyataan.
    1. Jika pernyataan (keadaan) berbentuk Present Tense, maka kesimpulan dinyatakan dengan menggunakan modal:

Can / could

May / might                                                                     V1

Must                                                     +                          be + VING

Should / ougth to                                be + complement

  1. Jika pernyataan (keadaan) berbentuk past tense, maka kesimpulan dinyatakan dengn modal perfect.

Could / might                                                                                 V3

Ought to / should                                + have                              been + VING

Must                                                                                                been + complement


contoh :

Might have = mungkin sudah…

  • Ought to/ should + have = seharusnya sudah

(digunakan untuk menyatkan peristiwa yang tidak terjadi dimasa   lampau)

  • Must have = pasti sudah…

(digunakan untuk menyimpulkan sesuatu yang pasti terjadi dimasa lampau)

  • Could have = seharusnya..

(digunakan untuk peristiwa yang tidak terjadi dimasa lampau)

  • Would + V1 adalah modal yang digunakan untuk menyatakan kegiatan yang dilakukan secara rutin (berulang – ulang) dimasa lampau.


Contoh Soal :

1. He went by bus, but the…by car.

a. Might of gone c. Could have gone

b. Should gone d. Ougth have gone

2. Mom & dad just left for the airport twenty minutes ago, so they…there yet.

a. Can’t have gotten c. Had better have gotten

b. Shouldn’t have gotten d. Could have gotten

3. Tropical forests(A) can be find(B) in Shouteast(C) Asia countries(D).

4. The light is out in her room; she…

a. Must go to bed c. Must gone to bed

b. Must have gone to bed d. Must be gone to bed

5. She went to the office by taxi, but she…by bus.

a. Might of gone c. Could have gone

b. Should gone d. Ought have gone

6. The garden was very clean. Somebody…

a. Must have cleaned c. Should have cleaned

b. Ought have cleaned d. Might cleaned

7. He hasn’t finished reading. He … the whole content of it.


a. Could have known

b. Had better have

c. Shouldn’t have known

d. Can’t have known


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