CONDIITIONAL CLAUSE (IF)
If clauses digunakan untuk menyatakan sebuah kondisi atas kejadian atau keberadaan sesuatu.
Contoh : If you mix sugar with water, it will dissolve
Here, the sugar will dissolve on the condition that you mix it with water.
Ada tiga tipe if clauses:
Type 1. mengenai kejadian nyata
Dalam tipe 1, if clause dalam present tense, sedangkan main clause biasanya dalam bentuk present, future, atau imperative.
- If you go to the drug store, buy me a soft drink. (present ; imperative)
- If Mary calls, I’ll invite her to the concert. (present ; future)
- If Mary should call, I’ll invite her to the concert. (modal ; future)
Type 2 is concerned with hypothetical or unreal situations in the present. (berkaitan dengan khayalan atau situasi yang tidak nyata saat ini.)
– If I had the money, I would buy a motorcycle.
This is called a hypothetical if clause because I don’t have the money but I am imagining what I would do if I did.
Type 3 is concerned with hypothetical discussion about the past.
– If I had known you were sick, I would have made you some soup. (past perfect-modal past)
Here the implication is that I didn’t know you were sick (and that you may no longer be sick).
– If you had been here yesterday, you could have seen Pam. (past perfect-modal past)
It is clear in the example that you were not here yesterday.
Kata if sangat membantu untuk mengenali if clause, namun, tidak selalu digunakan.
Type 1: should
- If you should get a letter from Greece, give me a call.
- Should you get a letter from Greece, give me a call.
Type 2: were
- If you were taller, you could reach the light.
- Were you taller, you could reach the light.
- If I had agreed, Jim would have married me.
- Had I agreed, Jim would have married me.
Unless, which has a meaning similar to if not, can also be used in conditional clauses.
- If it doesn’t rain, we’ll go to the lake.
- Unless it rains, we’ll go to the lake.
1. Get me a glass of lemonade, if you … to the kitchen.
b. will go
2. If I … you, I’d save some of your lottery winnings.
b. will be
3. If the chair … break, Mr. Dow can fix it for us.
4. This sailboat … go faster if there were more wind.
5. … a tornado come, go to the basement immediately.
6. If Allen had come sooner, he could … eaten dinner with us.
7. I won’t lend you this money … you promise to pay it back.
8. If the car … been larger, we would have bought it.
d. could be
9. … all agreed, Sara would have been given the scholarship.
a. we had
c. had we
10. “Are you thinking about going to the Bahamas for the holidays?”
“No, but if I … the time, I would definitely go.”
c. have had
d. would have