If clauses digunakan untuk menyatakan sebuah kondisi atas kejadian atau keberadaan sesuatu.

Contoh : If you mix sugar with water, it will dissolve

Here, the sugar will dissolve on the condition that you mix it with water.

Ada tiga tipe if clauses:


Type 1. mengenai kejadian nyata

Dalam tipe 1, if clause dalam present tense, sedangkan main clause biasanya dalam bentuk present, future, atau imperative.


  • If you go to the drug store, buy me a soft drink. (present ; imperative)
  • If Mary calls, I’ll invite her to the concert. (present ; future)
  • If Mary should  call, I’ll invite her to the concert. (modal ; future)


Type 2

Type 2 is concerned with hypothetical  or unreal situations in the present. (berkaitan dengan khayalan atau situasi yang tidak nyata saat ini.)

–          If I had the money, I would buy a motorcycle.

This is called a hypothetical  if clause because I don’t have the money but I am imagining what I would do if I did.


Type 3

Type 3 is concerned with hypothetical discussion about the past.

–          If I had known you were sick, I would have made you some soup. (past perfect-modal past)

Here the implication is that I didn’t know you were sick (and that you may no longer be sick).

–          If you had been here yesterday, you could have seen Pam. (past perfect-modal past)

It is clear in the example that you were not here yesterday.


Kata if sangat membantu untuk mengenali if clause, namun, tidak selalu digunakan.


Type 1: should

  • If you should get a letter from Greece, give me a call.
  • Should you get a letter from Greece, give me a call.


Type 2: were

  • If you were taller, you could reach the light.
  • Were you taller, you could reach the light.


Type 3

  • If I had agreed, Jim would have married me.
  • Had I agreed, Jim would have married me.

Unless, which has a meaning similar to if not, can also be used in conditional clauses.

  • If it doesn’t rain, we’ll go to the lake.
  • Unless it rains, we’ll go to the lake.



1. Get me a glass of lemonade, if you … to the kitchen.


a. go

b. will go

c. went

d. going


2. If I … you, I’d save some of your lottery winnings.


a. was

b. will be

c. were

d. be


3. If the chair … break, Mr. Dow can fix it for us.


a. might

b. should

c. will

d. may


4. This sailboat … go faster if there were more wind.


a. would

b. will

c. might

d. can


5.  … a tornado come, go to the basement immediately.


a. should

b. if

c. will



6. If Allen had come sooner, he could … eaten dinner with us.


a. had

b. has

c. have

d. will


7. I won’t lend you this money … you promise to pay it back.


a.  if

b. unless

c. when

d. whether


8. If the car … been larger, we would have bought it.


a. had

b. has

c. have

d. could be


9. … all agreed, Sara would have been given the scholarship.


a. we had

b. had

c. had we

d. we


10.  “Are you thinking about going to the Bahamas for the holidays?”

“No, but if I … the time, I would definitely go.”


a. have

b. had

c. have had

d. would have

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